People who say “short-lived” or “long-lived” nowadays generally pronounce “‑lived” as [lɪvd]; that is, as if it were the past tense of the verb, to live ([tə lɪv]). They (or whoever taught them that pronunciation) first encountered those words in print, rather than in erudite conversation, and naturally guessed that they should be pronounced like the similarly-spelt word most familiar to them, “lived”: [lɪvd]. They guessed wrong.
Long-lived and short-lived have nothing to do with to live (that is, [tə lɪv]) in any tense. They rhyme with wived (a participle used by Shakespeare, meaning, possessed of, or having obtained, a wife) and hived (a participle that might be used by beekeepers, meaning, possessed of, or put into, a hive). They are analogous to long-leaved and short-leaved—verbal adjectives that apply, inter alia, to trees.
To say that, for instance, some politician’s success was [ʃɔɹt lɪvd] makes no more sense than to say that a shortleaf pine is short-left.